The women were first raped, then slaughtered by machete or a spear strike to the back of the neck.
This boy, aged three, was killed by repeated spear strike directly to the middle of his tiny face, leaving a large red hole that exposed the inside of his skull.
These victims were Hunde, allegedly massacred by a Congolese Hutu militia known as Nyatura. I asked a Nyatura leader about the murders.
As the photograph was taken, Hutu families gathered together for safety at Katale following a massacre, allegedly by Hunde paramilitaries.
Many of those living here fled attacks by Raia Mutomboki groups. The Raia are notorious for carrying out raids bare-chested, wearing only raffia skirts, banging drums, and singing war songs, before killing entire families by spear and machete.
Many residents of the Rubaya camp recounted this kind of incident from their own experience. Sickness is rife inside the camp.
An estimated , lived in Rubaya camp at this time. Shortly after this photograph was taken, in early March , armed men from Raiya Mutomboki massacred 32 unarmed civilians, mainly Hutus, in Bunyakiri.
The FDLR carried out reprisal massacres in May of the same year, killing 51 unarmed civilians in nearby villages. These events have led to a series of tit-for-tat massacres, the largest of which saw a death toll of unarmed civilians.
The violence has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, who have fled violence and take refuge in squalid conditions within sprawling camps that lack adequate sanitation.
Recent shifts in alliances between armed groups, and the overall balance of power in the region, has made this part of Walikale particularly unsettled.
Anna was born into, lives and travels with this nomadic armed group. It is common for children to form a part of rebel life, to grow up in the midst of conflict.
This rich pastureland is fiercely fought over in an escalating territorial conflict. Originally owned by indigenous Congolese tribes, who subsist by growing crops and hunting bush meat, this landscape was seized by militias from pastoralist tribes, such as Tutsi encroaching from neighbouring Rwanda, who have cut the primordial forests to create pasture for their nomadic cattle herds.
Local populations are dispossessed through intimidation and human rights violations. This photograph was taken from an adjacent hill, directly on the Congo-Rwandan border.
The hills are in Kibumba, north of Goma. The border here is porous and has served as a crossing point for armed groups, especially M23 rebels, and the Rwandan army.
Previously posted to remote and classified locations outside of the Capital Wasteland, only the most elite of Enclave personnel, trained in multiple forms of combat, can earn the right to belong to Sigma.
Furthermore, Squad Sigma members are experienced fighters, each member being a hardened veteran of numerous successful combat operations.
Sigma Squads are posted around locations deemed by Enclave high command as imperative to the salvation of the cause. In the year on the west coast, a few elderly Enclave survivors make an existence on the fringes of, or near, the borders of NCR territory, keeping their heads down for fear of persecution.
Enclave remnants may have supported the Courier at the Second Battle of Hoover Dam , either desperate for a final shot at glory and to exact revenge on the NCR, or assist them against the Legion.
ED-E's programming contained a message saying that any repairs needed on the way were to be made by Chicago Enclave personnel, indicating that there are Enclave outposts there.
They were relocated to the rig after the bombs fell, and it served as their main headquarters until its sabotage by a tribal from Arroyo known as the " Chosen One ".
Navarro was an old oil refinery that served mainly as a refueling stop for Enclave Vertibirds carrying out missions in or around California, as well as a general go-to base of operations outside of the Oil Rig.
The Navarro perimeter is patrolled by Enclave Control Company light teams , that operate independent from Navarro base's commanding officer.
Mariposa was a pre-War U. After the war, it was taken over by the Master who used it to create an army of super mutants. After the Master's defeat and the base's destruction at the hands of the Vault Dweller , it was excavated by the Enclave, but abandoned when their newly mutated slaves rebelled against them.
Raven Rock was the Enclave's main base of operation in President Eden asks for the Lone Wanderer to be released so that the Lone Wanderer can be spoken to privately.
The facility was used primarily to coordinate the remainder of Enclave forces following the devastating defeat at the Purifier. During an offensive by the Brotherhood of Steel led by Liberty Prime , the defending forces of the Station contacted the mobile base crawler to call down an orbital strike on the robot's position.
Liberty Prime was destroyed, but shortly afterward the Station was lost to the Brotherhood. Located just outside the Capital Wasteland and accessible through the presidential metro , the base facilities housed some of the Enclave's Vertibirds and was defended by squads of soldiers and artillery emplacements.
The heart of Enclave operations in the area was the mobile base crawler, which featured a satellite communications dish capable of calling down an orbital strike from the Bradley-Hercules orbital weapons platform.
It could also have been used to destroy the Citadel , but this outcome is non-canon. The Brotherhood would soon take control of Adams Air Force Base in its entirety, claiming the leftover Vertibirds for itself and using the field to construct The Prydwen.
Before the Great War , the Enclave devoted a considerable amount of resources to the "Congressional Bunker" project. Vault-Tec Corporation was principally involved in the bunker's construction beneath the Whitespring Resort in West Virginia , and the Department of Agriculture was used to cover-up the purchase and transportation of shipments of high-tech machinery and weapons, including the artificial intelligence MODUS , for the bunker.
Congress members, Federal officials, and military staff who were part of the Enclave moved into the bunker shortly after the onset of the Great War , where they continued to observe the nation in complete secrecy.
Sometime before , the Scorched Plague penetrated the bunker and infected all of the human inhabitants, converting them into Scorched.
MODUS assumed command of the bunker and used its robots and defensive systems to eradicate the rampaging Scorched and then repair most of the damage they had caused.
MODUS and the machines then began waiting patiently for someone to arrive from the outside in order to resume contact with Appalachia. An Enclave engineer named Doctor Whitley, responsible for the Duraframe Eyebot Project makes mention in his own logged personal recordings of Enclave outposts located in the former city of Chicago in the Great Midwest Commonwealth.
The Enclave has a major role in Fallout 2 and Fallout 3 , and also make a minor appearance in Fallout: New Vegas and in its add-on Lonesome Road.
A lost Enclave patrol team would have also appeared in Black Isle's canceled Fallout 3. The Enclave is frequently mentioned in Fallout Bible. In early development for Fallout 3 , Bethesda used a different set of emblems seen below for the Enclave and its Vertibird fleets that were drawn and by concept artist Adam Adamowicz.
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God bless us, every one. We've just had to adapt in order to survive after the war. Contents [ show ]. History of the Enclave.
Members who were not hunted down are believed to have traveled east - or successfully integrated into the NCR.
Navarro Mariposa military base leveling schematics. Adams Air Force Base. Smith Snookie William Brandice. Ron Meyers Kevin Quincy Raul.
Early narration storyboard featuring the prototype emblem. Vertibird concept art featuring a different version of the prototype emblem behind the door on the Vertibird.
Rendition of the Vertibird version of the prototype emblem. Enclave floor design seen on the Enclave Oil Rig. The Enclave certainly didn't seem to be devoting much effort to digging up any other vaults and trying to use the human stock there to rebuild civilization.
The first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid , signed in Later, the term enclave began to be used also to refer to parcels of countries, counties, fiefs, communes, towns, parishes, etc.
This French word eventually entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept, although local terms have continued to be used.
In India, the word "pocket" is often used as a synonym for enclave such as "the pockets of Puducherry district". The word exclave , modeled on enclave,  is a logically extended back-formation of enclave.
Enclaves exist for a variety of historical , political and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was often transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, and often such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains.
In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire , and these domains principalities, etc.
Prior to Prussia alone consisted of more than discontiguous pieces of territory. Residing in an enclave within another country has often involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, currency, provision of utilities and health services, and host nation cooperation.
Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, , when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged first-order enclaves Indian and 51 Bangladeshi.
This exchange thus effectively de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all.
The residents in these enclaves had complained of being effectively stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram—Angarpota enclave remained.
For illustration, in the figure above , A1 is a semi-enclave attached to C and also bounded by water that only touches C's territorial water.
Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C. The territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B.
The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state that is enclosed within the territory of another state.
To distinguish the parts of a state entirely enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves.
Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called 'true enclaves'". The definition of a territory comprises both land territory and territorial waters.
In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime those surrounded by territorial sea or lacustrine if in a lake enclaves.
While subnational enclaves are numerous the world over, there are only a few national-level true enclaves in Africa, Australia and the Americas each such enclave being surrounded by the territorial waters of another country.
An historical example is West Berlin before the reunification of Germany. Since , all of Berlin was ruled de jure by the four Allied powers.
Also, 12 small West Berlin enclaves, such as Steinstücken , were separated from the city, some by only a few meters.
Historically, four Bantustans or "Black homelands" of South Africa were granted nominal independence, unrecognized internationally, by the Apartheidist government from until their reabsorption in Others remained under government rule from to Being heavily partitioned, various parts of these Bantustans were true enclaves.
The United States' constitutional principle of tribal sovereignty treats federally-recognized Indian reservations as quasi-independent enclaves.
To establish jurisdiction, the Scottish Court in the Netherlands , at Camp Zeist near Utrecht , was temporarily declared as sovereign territory of the United Kingdom under Scots law for the duration of the trial of those accused in the Lockerbie bombing , and was therefore an exclave of the United Kingdom and of Scotland , and an enclave within the Netherlands.
This was also so during the appeal against the conviction. The court was first convened in , and the land returned to the Netherlands in True exclave is an extension of the concept of true enclave.
In order to access a true exclave from the mainland, a traveller must go through the territory of at least one other state. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves.
Vinokurov declares, "Technically, Portugal , Denmark , and Canada also border only one foreign state, but they are not enclosed in the geographical, political, or economic sense.
They have vast access to international waters. At the same time, there are states that, although in possession of sea access, are still enclosed by the territories of a foreign state.
Thus a state is classified as a sovereign semi-enclave if it borders on just one state, and its land boundary is longer than its sea coastline.
Sometimes, administrative divisions of a country, for historical or practical reasons, caused some areas to belong to one division while being attached to another.
The term pene -exclave was defined in Robinson as "parts of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country.
Pene-enclaves are also called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. A commonly cited example is the Kleinwalsertal , a valley part of Vorarlberg , Austria, that is only accessible from Germany to the north, being separated from the rest of Austria by high mountains traversed by no roads.
Hence, such areas are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes , without meeting the strict definition.
Many pene-exclaves partially border the sea or another body of water, which comprises their own territorial waters i.
They border their own territorial waters in addition to a land border with another country, and hence they are not true exclaves. Still, one cannot travel to them on land without going through another country.
Attribution of a pene-enclave status to a territory can sometimes be disputed, depending on whether the territory is considered to be practically inaccessible from the mainland or not.
It is possible for an enclave of one country to be completely surrounded by a part of another country that is itself an enclave of the first country.
These enclaves are sometimes called counter-enclaves. An ethnic enclave is a community of an ethnic group inside an area in which another ethnic group predominates.